What is climate and weather

What is climate and weather

What is weather?

Weather is the combination of events that occur every day in our atmosphere. Even though there’s one atmosphere on Earth, the weather isn’t similar all around the world and varies over time to time.

Troposphere is the part of the earth’s atmosphere that most weather events taken place. There are different characteristics that will change the atmosphere in a certain area. Air pressure, temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, are some of the characteristics. Together, these factors will determine what the weather is like at a given time and location

What is Climate?

Climate is weather conditions over a long period. It is the average of precipitation, temperature, humidity, sunshine, wind, and other measures of weather that occur over a long period in a particular place,What is climate and weather

Climate change

Climate change is a long-term variation in the average weather patterns that have to define Earth’s local, regional, and global climates. There are two causes of climate change.

Natural causes- volcanic eruptions (Volcanoes emits significant amounts of greenhouse gases such as water vapor and carbon dioxide. Intense volcanism significantly increased the amount of carbon dioxide causing global warming), oceanic current, earth’s orbital changes, solar variations, and internal variability.
Anthropogenic activities-Burning of oil, deforestation, fertilizers, increasing livestock farming, fluorinated gases.
Climate change impacts on ecosystem

Polar Environment

Polar environments are in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Arctic region is in the Northern hemisphere and the Antarctic is in the Southern hemisphere. Temperature rise is the main cause of climate change in this region
Polar environments are in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Arctic region is in the Northern hemisphere. Antarctic is in the Southern hemisphere. Temperature rise is the main cause of climate change in this region.

The impacts of the causes will be;

Melting ice affects the breeding of polar animals (Ex: Polar bears, seals, sea birds, algae and etc)
Loss of habitats and feeding grounds, increase risk of diseases of polar animals
Open and ice-free areas in the arctic ocean will attract more shipping and commercial exploitation resulting in more pollution
Loss of sea life due to increased oceanic temperature (Ex: plankton, penguins, whales)
Polar bears lose weight due to less food- affects the survival of the population

Freshwater ecosystems

Freshwater ecosystems include reservoirs, lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, springs, and wetlands, etc. It is a subset of earth’s aquatic ecosystems.
The causes of climate change in this ecosystem are Increased water temperature, Prolonged drought, Changes in rainfall, Intrusion of seawater.

The impacts of the causes will be;

  • Depletion of oxygen causing stress for aquatic flora and fauna
  • Scarcity of drinking water and water for irrigation,
  • Disrupt hydropower generation,
  • Flow in permanent streams become intermittent and water bodies may become more saline,
  • Intensive rainfall could cause flashflood and damage water infrastructure,
  • Changes in water level,
  • Disruption of habitats and behavior changes in biodiversity increase the health impact

Coastal Zone

A Coastal Zone is an area where the interaction of the ocean and land processes occurs. Mangroves are a taxonomically diverse group. They are salt-tolerant, mainly arboreal and flowering plants. The causes of climate change in this ecosystem are sea-level rise, increase intensity of storms.

The impacts of the causes will be;

Coastal areas may get flooded and erode beaches,

  • Loss of nesting beaches of some marine species (Ex: Sea turtles),
  • Increased salinity and increased wave action can cause serious threats to mangroves,
  • Loss of mangroves
  • Alter flooding patterns
  • Alter erosion and sedimentation rates in mangroves forests

Marine Ecosystem

The marine ecosystem is a part of the largest aquatic ecosystems on the earth. This comprises habitats such as sandy shores, rocky shores, mudflats, etc.

The causes of climate change in this ecosystem are Rising oceanic temperature, Sea Level Rise.

The impacts of the causes will be;

  • Coral bleaching and death of the corals,
  • A decline of habitats of species which depend on corals,
  • Changes in current affects fish migration,
  • Damage of skeletons and shells of many ocean species due to ocean acidification,
  • Change in the water cycle,
  • corals and seagrass meadows are in danger of disappearing since they can only photosynthesize in relatively shallow water

Ways to prevent climate change?

  1. Use of fossil fuel substitute
  2. Low carbon energy sources, Solar energy, Wind power, Hydropower, Bioenergy, Nuclear power, Carbon-neutral, and negative fuels, Natural Gas, Smart grid, and load management can be used as substitutions for the fossil fuel.
  3. When considering the Agriculture, it will contribute to climate change both by humans causes emissions of greenhouse gases, and by the conversion of non-agricultural land such as forests into agricultural land.

How to prevent agriculture induced climate change

  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Regenerative agriculture
  • Good soil management practices such as fertilizer usage, irrigation, and tillage that can decrease the emissions of nitrous oxide from the soil
  • Introduction of methanotrophic bacteria
  • Diet modification and grazing management
  • Using ruminant-free substitutes instead of milk substitutes and meat analogs
  • Using Vaccines that are being developed to decrease the significant global warming contributions from methane released by livestock via flatulence and eructation
  • When considering the transport and urban planning sector following strategies can be applied

4. Transport

  • Use of Modes of mass transportation such as bus, light rail (metro, subway, etc.), and long-distance rail can be used instead of personal automobiles. It will consume twenty times less energy per person-distance.
  • Use of Modes of mass transportation such as bus, light rail (metro, subway, etc.), and long-distance rail can be used instead of personal automobiles. It will consume twenty times less energy per person-distance.
  • Use of Modern energy-efficient technologies and vehicles (electric vehicles and carbon-neutral synthetic gasoline and jet fuel)

5. Urban planning

  • Compact community development
  • Multiple transportation choices
  • Mixed land uses
  • Practices to conserve green space
  • Transit-oriented development-encourage public transit and make walking and cycling more attractive options

Other strategies that can be used to prevent climate change

  1. Energy Conservation,
  2. Carbon Sinks and Removals,
  3. Reforestation,
  4. avoided deforestation and afforestation,
  5. avoided desertification,
  6. Carbon capture and storage,
  7. Enhanced weathering (Geoengineering),
  8. Carbon dioxide removal,
  9. Solar radiation management

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